What is the best conversion tool for command line batch converting of PDF and JPG to TIF?
You might want to be clear about which TIF - there are a bunch TIFF G4 FAX (black and white) TIFF LZW TIFF JPEG etc. Some TIFF formats can be multi-page others can't. RasterMaster from Snowbound Imaging SDK and Imaging Software runs fast and handles almost every of PDF out there. It can also produce just about any of TIFF. Ites in both Windows and Java flavors. The SnowBatch Windows application is based on RasterMaster and makes it easy to convert a bunch of PDF and JPG files to single page or multi-page TIF. It has a full-featuredmand line.
Can you describe how detonating thermonuclear charges on Mars' poles can lead to the planet becoming hospitable?
He talks about it here at 2 minutes in just says The fast way is to drop thermonuclear weapons on the poles n s nGetting lots of questions about it here today as a result. I know he is probably at least half joking in the video but his remarks have been taken seriously by some reporters e.g. in the Independent Want to make Mars hospitable? Drop nuclear bombs says Elon Musk and Elon Musk says nuking Mars is the quickest way to make it livable - CNET and many other headlines of that nature today. And it's an interesting question so I think deserves a detailed serious answer ). First I've never seen any paper suggesting nuclear weapons could terraform Mars quickly. I've never seen any serious suggestion to use nukes. Mirrors yes impactingets yes artificial greenhouse gases yes but nukes they are just not powerful enough and anyway the atmosphere still would need extra warming even if you did liberate the CO2 to keep it liberated. And anyway it wouldn't work. Not make it habitable as in Earth habitable or even close. WHAT IT COULD DO - CREATE A TEMPORARY ICE COVERED LAKE AT THE POLES nIf you went all out and exploded thousands of 1 gigaton bombs on Mars what it could do is briefly release a lot of dry ice (CO2) into the atmosphere as CO2 also water vapour which would make the Mars atmosphere briefly a bit thicker. But nowhere near as thick as Earth. This happens naturally whenever largeets hit the Mars poles and as you can see they haven't made it into a habitable planet. The other effect would be to create a lake at the poles. Which would soon freeze over. But below the insulating covering of ice it would remain liq for a while. But it would be much better to deflect a largeet to hit Mars if you want that effect. Even quite small bolides hitting Earth atmosphere release the equivalent of small nuclear bombs in terms of the amount of energy released into the upper atmosphere when they create bright fireballs briefly brighter than a full moon. To interpret this table a kiloton is about 4184 gigajoules. So the ones labeled as 1 gigajoules are in the kilotons range TNT equivalent s Mars is closer to the asteroid belt and gets hit about ten times more often than Earth and with its thin atmosphere then even small asteroids get all the way to the surface. On Mars these wouldn't be air bursts they'd be surface hits and there would be ten times as many of them as for Earth. It gets hit by meteorites large enough to create a small crater 2 times every year.n One of many fresh impact craters on Mars spotted from orbit. It gets hit by 2 meteorites large enough to create small craters like this every year (much higher frequency than Earth because closer to the asteroid belt and also thinner atmosphere). See Pow! Mars Hit By Space Rocks 2 Times a Year nIt gets hit by the equivalent of a 1 megaton impact every 3 years estimated . On Earth the equivalent figure is once every 15 years. It gets hit by a 1 megaton impact every century. See Earth and Mars crater-size frequency distribution and impact ratestheoretical and observational analysis So it gets hit by impacts with the equivalent of multi-kiloton nuclear weapon impacts frequently and multi-megaton level impacts would bemon. YIELD IN GIGATONS EQUIVALENT OF A COMET IMPACT ON THE MARS POLES nThe largest nuclear weapon ever detonated on the Earth the Tsar Bomba s had a yield of 4 megatons. This is its bomb casing ( FileTsar Bomba s )n And the fireballn The Tsara Bomba fireball about 8 km in diameter. ( s ) A 13 meter diameter meteorite hitting Earth has a similar yield to the Tsara Bomba of about 6 megatons (though in the case of Earth much of it would be dissipated in the atmosphere on the way down).. Conceivably we could build a 1 gigaton nuclear weapon in the future with 25 times the yield of the Tsara Bomba.. But a 1 km diameteret has a yield of around 1 gigatons. A 1 km diameteret has a yield of around 1 gigatons. On Mars the impact velocity is roughly halved for short periodets (not so much for long periodets) - that still makes the yield around 25 gigatons and about 25 gigatons respectively. So you'd need 25 gigaton bombs each one 25 times more powerful than the largest nuclear weapon ever built to equal the effect of a single one 1 km diameteret hitting the poles of Mars. And that's a size ofet that would hit Mars from time to time. I got those figures from Defending Planet Earth - page 36 s - by the Space Studies board. Other sources give somewhat varying figures but whether it is 6 or 1 gigatons is neither here nor there. (I'll see if I can find statistics for the megatons and expected frequency of impacts of 1 kmets for Mars and update this answer meanwhile this is plenty to give a first idea of what is involved) So if you think that nuclear bombs would jump start a thicker atmosphere on Mars why haven't asteroid andet impacts done that already? LATENT HEAT OF MELTING FOR ICE nWe can alsoe at this another way. The latent heat of melting for ice is quite high. 334 Kj A kiloton is about 4184 gigajoules so that's enough to melt 4184 kg or about 125 kg. Or about 125 cubic meters. A Tsar Bomba at 4 megatons if all the energy went into melting water and none into heating up rock or dissipated into the atmosphere could melt 4 times that so given that there are a billion cubic meters in a cubic kilometer it could melt half a cubic kilometer of water (5 million tons) Spread over the entire surface of Mars surface area of 144.8 million square kilometers then that would be equivalent to a layer of .35 meters or about 3.5 microns of water. The water currently in the Mars atmosphere has equivalent of 1-2 microns (though varying regionally seasonally and from day to night). Page on So one Tsar Bomba would increase the amount of water vapour temporarily by about a third if it all went into melting ice - but - in practice only a tiny fraction of it would do that.. If we used 25 gigaton bombs (625 Tsar Bombas) the equivalent of our 1 km diameteret this could melt the equivalent to a layer of about 2.2 meters of water over the surface of Mars. So this would melt a fifth of the estimated 11 meters of water equivalent over the surface of Mars thought to be available on Mars according to one estimate. But - in practice nothing like that amount of energy would go into melting the ice. And any water that got into the atmosphere would almost immediately condense out again as ice or penetrate into the dry equatorial sands and be lost. And much of that water would remain on the surface at the impact point as a lake that would freeze over. The idea I think is to try to kickstart a greenhouse effect not make significant changes to Mars right away. I can't find much about this it's not the most usual suggestion for a way to heat up Mars. Michio Kaku briefly mentions nuclear bombs here s Just as a passing remark I doubt if he means that nuclear bombs by themselves could do it. Situation is much the same for dry ice latent heat of melting sublimation is 184 if all the energy went into sublimating dry ice then each Tsar Bomba would liberate 275 million tons of CO2 just a tiny fraction of the 25 trillion tons (teratons) of the Mars atmosphere. So again you'd need millions of these to start to make a significant difference with all of the energy somehow focused into liberating dry ice into CO2. So it's not going to do that much directly. Hope has to be to somehow initiate a runaway feedback reaction. But the amounts are rather small for that also from a few hundred thousand nuclear bombs. If you think liberating a small amount of water or dry ice from the ice caps like this could cause a runaway greenhouse effect of some sort - well why hasn't it happened already withet impacts? COMET SLIDING SPRING nWhen Comet Sliding Spring was first discovered then for a time they thought it was going to hit Mars and then could have done this experiment for us naturally but it missed. The subsurface lake would be a temporary habitat for life on Mars a bit like the subglacial lakes in Antarctica. This happens from time to time and is one of the possible habitats in present day Mars for life there. The models suggest that if aet a few kilometers in diameter hit a high lattitude region of Mars the result would be a crater 3 - 5 km in diameter and an underground hydrothermal system that remains liq for thousands of years. It would be a habitat for microbes. An anaerobic lake so no oxygen even if you have hydrothermal vents (the Antarctic lakes are nitrogen and oxygen rich even hyperoxygenated through the effect of dissolved air getting into the lakes as the ice at the bottom melts - but on Mars the same process if it happened would make it CO2 rich not oxygen rich). LOTS MORE TO TERRAFORMING MARS nThere is a lot more to it anyway. First Mars gets half the sunlight levels of Earth. Terraforming suggestions typically add large mirrors in space or greenhouse gases such as methane topensate for that. Then CO2 is poisonous to humans at levels above 1%. So somehow you want to convert all that CO2 into organics and oxygen or the most you can have live there are trees. But to do that takes a huge amount of energy or else you use photosynthesis. But to generate all that oxygen you need to take the carbon out of the atmosphere permanently not just circulate it around as plants usually do it eventually returns as they decay. So you need to grow enough plants to cover the entire surface of Mars with a layer several meters thick of organics to sequester all that carbon. This part of the process Chris McKay estimated would take about 1 years - because it has about half the light levels of Earth and a third of the gravity so that it needs to have three times the mass of oxygen per square meter for the same atmospheric partial pressure. Then humans don't do well in an environment of pure oxygen long term we suffer from oxygen poisoning unless the atmosphere is very thin and even then long term like for years wouldn't want to live in a pure oxygen low pressure atmosphere - and anyway it is also a major fire hazard if the entire atmosphere was oxygen supposing you could do it. So you'd want a buffer gas. Mars has some argon but not huge amounts. It originally had lots of nitrogen but it is gone perhaps turned into rock? So you have to somehow liberate or find huge quantities of nitrogen to use as a buffer gas for the atmosphere. And it probably doesn't have enough water either 11 meters global equivalent layer of ice - which may sound a lot but remember you've got equatorial regions that are dry to depths of over a hundred meters probably hundreds of meters - melt that ice and most of it would just sink into the equatorial dry sands. There are ideas for all this but it involves megaengineering - importing water fromets. Could get the nitrogen that way too using methane richets from the outer solar system. Large mirrors in space. Etc etc. Then you have the problem that the planet you just terraformed in this way - with its greenhouse gases or mirrors needs continual support by high technology to keep it running. If you can terraform it as quickly and easily as that it can unterraform just as quickly. And long term it loses water vapour from the atmosphere. You've still got the solar storms. You've got the high impact rate because it is closer to the asteroid belt. With the level of technology needed for terraforming Mars - why not just move all thoseets and other resources into close to Earth orbit instead and build space habitats? And use the technology for mirrors around Mars to build thin film mirrors to concentrate sunlight on solar panels in orbit around Earth and beam the energy to Earth and solve our energy problems? It doesn't make a lot of sense to use that technology to pour water onto a desert planet as part of a hundred thousand year project. Well not yet anyway we are at the stage surely of attempting multi-decade rather than hundreds of thousands of years projects. And the thing is - our failed primitive attempts on Mars right now could easily mess up the planet in such a way as to make future terraforming or whatever else we want to do there much harder. See Trouble With Terraforming Mars n To Terraform Mars with Present Technology - Far into Realms of Magical Thinking - Opinion Piece n Imagined Colours Of Future Mars - What Happens If We Treat A Planet As A Giant Petri Dish? Citations for the impact lake if you want to look at the scholarly papers (but these are mainly behind paywalls) Starting conditions for hydrothermal systems underneath Martian craters Hydrocode modeling s Pierazzo E. Artemieva N.A. and Ivanov B.A. 25 from Large Meteorite Impacts III Issue 384 p 444 edited by Thomas Kenkmann Friedrich Huf6rz Alexander Deutsch Geological Society of America 1 Jan 25 ( pdf earlier version with colour graphics )n Impact crater lakes on Mars Horton E. Newsom Gregory E. Brittelle Charles A. Hibbitts Laura J. Crossey Albert M. Kudo Journal of Geophysical Research Planets (19913212) Volume 11 Issue E6 pages 14951314955 25 June 1996 DOI I talk about this and many other potential habitats for present day Mars life in Are There Habitats For Life On Mars? - Salty Seeps Clear Ice Greenhouses Ice Fumaroles Dune Bioreactors... As usual if you spot anything at all to correct in this however minor don't hesitate to say in thements ).
Which is the best tool to design Mobile app UX design?
Design can never be static. Every project is different and so is the process that varies as per the product personal preferences team size and other relative variables but when ites to tools you will find only a handful that is every designer pet. These tools pave the way for planning and brainstorming help in clearmunication of ideas solve technical troubles to build mind-blowing animations and even sort interactions with the developers. Over the years the app designers have worked relentlessly to refine their design tool kits so that they can fasten the workflow and execute right design decisions. These tools pave the way for planning and brainstorming help in clearmunication of ideas solve technical troubles to build mind-blowing animations and even sort interactions with the developers. Over the years the app designers have worked relentlessly to refine their design tool kits so that they can fasten the workflow and execute right design decisions. Yes evaluating various extensions plug-ins tools and online resources have somewhat be necessary for the design cycle. The team must craft out high-performance mobile app solutions and make it a hit in the digital market. For this it is important to have some of the easy-to-use design tools that can transform your raw ideas in the most creative way and can collect useful feedback at an early stage of mobile app development. Here is a list of some of the amazing mobile app design tools which will render your workflows screens and pitches more robust with each project- 1. Sketch Although Photoshop is a personal favorite with the designers still some have made a switch to Sketch. This super graphic design tool possesses similarity to Photoshop but is more focused on UI design. The tool is powerful has a wide range of features and brings out professional results. It extends infinite zooming 2x export and styled vector shapes which are apt for multiple resolutions. Sketch offers an Export All feature and as it is vector-based there is no problem in exporting PDF JPG and PNG (optionally in 2x) files. Generally app designers prefer 3 different tools for 3 purposes namely Omnigraffle for wireframing Photoshop for visual design and Illustrator for vector logos. All these 3 tools are perfectly aligned with Sketch thereby making one app fulfill all your needs and achieve overall productivity with no wastage of time. The sketch is suitable to use owing to its simple operation and the feature which can design the symbols ofmon elements like buttons tabs headers etc with ease. It not only fires up the process of wireframing but also enables an easy hand-off to the visual designers. As we are employing the same tool in the visual design stage there won be much trouble in updating wireframes into high-fidelity visuals s . All the changes that we have witnessed in-app designing have been made possible because of Sketch vectorized modelponents like multi-resolution exporting and shared styles and symbols. Know More About Sketch s horizontal-rule 2. Marvel The Marvel app converts raw sketches on paper into engaging tappable protos that permit you to demo your app ideas and collect feedback from others. It works perfectly well with .psd files so you are not required to convert your designs before uploading. Marvel saves the testing time consumed on changes as it automatically updates them in the background. By replicating the device the web browser can successfully test your proto very much in the natural milieu. Leading you towards most realistic prototyping experience this tool also gives the benefit of custom animations s and fading between screens. Marvel being an interactive tool enables designers to import from Sketch build protos of app interactions animations and transitions and further forward these protos with stakeholders and developers. It is a convenient way to open up an entire flow to the customer as well without being bothered by the static user flows. Here designers don have to be equipped with advanced programs like Framer and After Effects to include animations transitions and other interesting features in their app layouts. Marvel permits any designer to form transition-based animations over various app screens speedily. The tool is used to proto an entire app especially the one with basic transitions in a large number of screens. Know More About Marvel s horizontal-rule 3. POP If you found the Marvel app useful but you are in search for a working protopatible with your Android device POP app is what you need. It is the best application for mobile prototyping and makes the transition from paper to digital prototyping very easy. All you need to do is to take pictures of your sketches to upload them to POP or simply upload .psd files to Adobe Creative Cloud. After this you can smoothly shift between views gestures and interactions. As POP is integrated with Dropbox thus there won be any trouble sharing your work with others. What makes POP app different is that itmences with the s within UXPin i.e. you can change brightness sharpness contrast and transparency with ease. The tool also gives the advantage of exporting the finished proto to pdf HTML or png formats. Thus you can successfully execute interactions that can improve the performance of the entire project. The UXPin library supports all the three platforms-iOS Android and the web. Know More About UXPin s horizontal-rule 5. A great zero coding wireframing tool makes highly engaging protos that have the look and feel similar to the mobile apps you are building. Also this tool can be utilized for testing your proto designs on multiple devices. Another gripping feature of is that there are actions which add to the efficiency of the application. Some of the fascinating features are Dropbox sync Adaptive UI libraries Material Design UI s Library and Offline mode etc. Here you can have swift screen transitions make orientation changes or touch gestures and even test each proto on any device iPhone iPad or Android to suit theplete purpose. Initially intended for mobile apps has found its markets in other emerging internet-connected devices like smart TVs refrigerators alarm clocks and cars gaming devices and Google Android Wear. It is a fairly functional app for the designers as they can incorporate quick changes and further pass on the protos to other members conveniently. Know More About s horizontal-rule 6. Zeplin Zeplin is a plugin and web app that ispatible only with Sketch. Itbines all the attributes of the shortlisted elements into a collective specifications sheet which clearly exs the handoff between the design and developer teams. With this app you can frame living breathing and interactive specification sheets. Zeplin is useful as the designers are not required to wait until the end of the design process to hand over the specs to the developers. The developers can be introduced to the process much earlier s and then iterations can be done as per the need of the course. The app can cut the speccing time to a great extent and thus enhance the overall app speccing process. Know More About Zeplin s horizontal-rule 7. Axure If you are looking to create fully interactive UI mockups and wireframes Axure is the wireframing tool just meant for you. Being a zero coding platform for wireframing websites and applications Axure consists of all the documentation tools that are needed to pass the design choices and document the layouts. You can opt for either the Standard edition or the Pro edition which has extra collaboration and documentation elements. It is indeed the largest application devised for advanced prototyping solutions. Speed is the best characteristic of Axure as you can quickly form protos of responsive websites and mobile applications. You can easily add interactions make Master pages and choose ready-made elements and patterns from Widget libraries. Additionally you can import images add colors gradients and maneuver the transparency of each object. The version 7 of Axure supports excellent framework that has unique web fonts events string functions and convertible protos. Know More About Axure s horizontal-rule 8. JustInMind A wonderful prototyping tool JustInMind allows better and faster prototyping for websites and mobile apps. Created in 28 the best feature of JustInMind is that it can be downloaded to yourputer not the just browser which gives the option of working offline. Not only you can design self-explanatory wireframes but receive feedback on the same instantly. Being a dynamic prototyping tool JustInMind is apanied with a superb widget library that permits you to enter HTML videos online widgets docs interactive maps and online content in your website or application. From websites to advanced administration the application does its wonders for everything you want to create. You can add elements from UI libraries and build Master pages easily. A big merit is that you are able to download add-ons through ready-made modules which has bootstrap elements too. Also now conveniently share mobile protos with other team members and conduct testing on your smartphone. Simplicity works in favor of JustInMind but there are times when a lot more is expected from the performance. Know More About JustinMind horizontal-rule 9. HotGloo HotGloo is a robust wireframe UX prototyping tool that gives you the control to proto any of mobile application which needs a particular user interface. Developed with extraordinary interactive features HotGloo allows more than one app designer to collaborate on a single app wireframing project. Through this tool you can work on your wireframing project anytime anywhere around the clock without the barrier of the browser or operating system you are accessing